Sunday, September 30, 2007

DECEPTION (part 3)

God has always desired a dwelling place on this planet where He could have fellowship with man. Before the fall it was in the Garden of Eden, where he had communion with Adam in the cool of the day. Then we see it was with Moses and His people in the “Tabernacle” in the wilderness. Then in the “Temple” that Solomon built in Jerusalem, although a temple built with hands was not His choice, He did dwell in the “Ark of the Covenant” in the Holy of Holies. Then we see His supreme effort to dwell with man by allowing His Son to be incarnated in human flesh here on planet earth, so that He could become “Immanuel”, or “God with us”. Jesus was His “Temple or Sanctuary” on earth for some 33 years. It was not until the age of 30, when He was baptized in the Jordon river by His cousin John, that the Holy Spirit descended upon Him in the form of a dove, and the Father’s voice was heard from heaven saying “You are My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased” (Mark 1:10-11). From this time until He “gave up the Ghost” on the cross of Calvary, He was the very image of the invisible God, in whom dwelt “all the fullness of the Godhead bodily” (Col 2:9). Jesus was the “pattern Son” that the church, which He said He would build (Matt 16:18), and which was to be His body on earth after He ascended back to heaven, were to pattern themselves after.

The apostle Paul gives the best description of the church in his letter to the Ephesians. In (Eph 2:19-22) we see the church called a “household of God”,a Holy temple in the Lord”, and a “dwelling place of God in the Spirit”. This is clearly God’s intention, to have a dwelling place here on planet earth, where He can commune with His “new creation” of adopted children. The church is to be the “companion” for His Son, not only now in this “present age”, but also in the “age to come”. The church is to be “filled with all the fullness of God” (Eph 3:19), and be the vessel here on earth for the “abode” for the Father, Son and Holy Spirit to dwell in. (John 14:23). This is the same Greek word used by John in (John 14:2) which is translated there as “mansions”. This is a clear reference to our bodies which Paul calls the “temple of the living God” in (2 Cor 6:16), and not some “mansion over yonder” as we have been told that Jesus has gone to prepare for us. At the present time Jesus is seated next to Father God on His throne making “intercession” for us. I imagine the theme of His intercession is that we, His children, will be strengthened by the indwelling Spirit, and learn how to function as mature “sons of God” in this dark, ungodly age in which we are called to be “salt and light”! We trust these articles on deception have cleared up some things for you.

Sincerely submitted.


Wednesday, September 26, 2007

DECEPTION (part 2)

We see in (Rom 5:17) that we will “reign in life through the One, Jesus Christ”, and then in (Rev 5:10) we read that we shall reign as kings and priests “on the earth”. This whole idea that we are transported to “heaven” either by death or by the rapture to be with God is not a scriptural concept, as I now see it. We have been led astray by man’s teaching and by many songs that talk about going to heaven as a place located somewhere “over yonder” where Jesus has gone to prepare a “mansion” just over the hilltop in the corner of “glory land”. I’m sorry to have to be the one to burst your bubble, but all that we have been told is not according to the word of God.

This deception, as I mentioned in part 1, goes back a long way, and is part of Satan’s way of sabotaging the plan God has for His true Church. The whole teaching about a “secret rapture” and how Jesus is coming at any moment “for” His saints, to transport them to heaven to be with Him for 7 years in order to miss the “tribulation”, is not scriptural! Read (Matt 24:15-31) carefully, especially verses 22, 24, and 29, and see that we the “elect” will be there during the “great tribulation”. Jesus returns to “shorten” the time for our sakes by doing away with the Antichrist when He appears “on the clouds of heaven with power and great glory”. There is not one verse of scripture to tell us Jesus is coming “for” his saints, but many to tell us He is coming “in” and “with” His saints, and we will go up to meet Him in the air. Not to be taken to “heaven”, but to return to earth to rule and reign with Him through eternity. The reason the “Pretribulation Rapture” has become so popular is because it does not require us to suffer any persecution, or to grow up unto maturity. Scripture is clear that both of these are required of us by our Creator. The whole Pretribulation thing with the secret rapture, and Jesus coming "for" the saints, is all part of this major deception plot of the enemy to get our attention off what the Lord wants us to concentrate on now! His plan for us is to realize our responsibility as “sons of God” and start to learn how to be over comers. In (Heb 5:12-14) we learn how we are to become mature believers, by feeding on the solid food of God’s word, and not just the “milk”, which is meant only for babes in Christ. This maturing is a process that starts with receiving Christ as Savior, and progresses to “know the love of Christ which passes knowledge, that you may be filled with all the fullness of God” (Eph3:19). This process is known as “sanctification”, which is another word for “holiness”, or the separation from the world system which is under the control of our enemy, “the god of this age”. (2 Cor 4:3). Study these scriptures carefully like the Bereans did in (Acts 17:11)!

Sincerely submitted.


Monday, September 24, 2007

DECEPTION (part 1)

The more I study the scriptures, the more it becomes clear to me that the church has been deceived in so many areas. I have mentioned in previous articles some of these areas of deception, and would like to draw your attention to another. We must keep in mind that we are involved in a “cosmic war” between God and Satan that has been going on for thousands of years. We enter this conflict the moment we are “born again” into the family of God and become an heir, and joint-heir with Christ of all things. Satan is now our enemy too, and deception is one of his many tools that he uses to try to keep the church from being what God intended it to be!

From the very beginning God’s intention was to have a family of beings like himself that he could have fellowship with. He has always lived in “community” with the Son and Holy Spirit, in what we call “The Trinity”, but it seems he wanted to enlarge his family. We read in Genesis how he created Adam in His image and likeness, and then brought forth Eve from Adam’s side, to start the first human family on this planet. God’s desire was always to come and dwell with man on planet earth. We see this in Genesis where we read how He came down to fellowship with Adam in Eden. Then when we read the last few chapters of Revelation we see The heavenly Jerusalem coming down from heaven to apparently hover over the earthly Jerusalem as a home for the redeemed throughout eternity!

This whole idea that heaven is located somewhere “over yonder” as a geographical location that we will all go to when we die, is all part of an enormous deception, as I am beginning to see it. This has been designed by our enemy to get our attention off the earth as our inheritance. (Matt 5:5) Instead of God transporting us to heaven to be with Him, His plan is to transport heaven down to planet earth so He can abide with us here for eternity. I know that sounds like “heresy” of the highest order, but before you tune me out, let me show you a few scriptures. In (Rev 5:10) we read that He has made us “kings and priests to our God; and we shall reign on the earth”. We have already pointed out (Matt 5:5) where Jesus said the meek shall “inherit the earth”. Check out the many other references to earth as being our inheritance, and I’m sure you will see what I mean. If we could just learn to read scripture for what it is, the very word of our Creator God, and ask the Holy Spirit to interpret it for us and not depend on some man’s opinion, we would begin to see how much we have been deceived! We will continue this in part 2, and it may become a series!

Sincerely submitted.


Friday, September 21, 2007


As you know, if you have followed this blog lately, that the subject of church has been a major topic. This week I ran across a statement that grabbed my attention, here it is "A small church with a big vision has greater impact than a big church with a small vision"! Read it over a few times before you decide that Gramp is just not in favor of large churches. This statement is not about the size of churches, but about their vision! It's only common sense that a big church with a big vision would have a greater impact than a small church with a big vision. Right?

What makes a church "successful" in the eyes of God? Is it their large buildings? Is it their multi-million dollar budgets?---I think not! If we read Paul's first letter to the church he planted in Thessalonica we get a true picture of a church that is having a great impact on their city. "And may the Lord make your love for one another and for all people grow and overflow, just as our love for you overflows. May He, as a result, make your hearts strong, blameless, and holy as you stand before God our Father when our Lord Jesus Christ comes again with all His holy people." (1Thess 3:12-13). God looks at the heart of a church to see if they are "successful", and here Paul mentions two characteristics that are vital for a successful church---"love for one another" and "holiness". Sad to say, in many churches today we don't see much of either of these two essential requirements!

In our western 21st century culture, we are taught that looking out for number one is important, and independence is seen as a virtue to be attained at all costs. This is completely opposite to the teaching of scripture, for example read (Phil 2:1-5), and (Col 3:12-17) to see how church members should relate to each other. Then when people in the world see this, they are more apt to be interested in hearing the "Good News" of the Gospel! So no matter what size of church you are part of, and you definitely should be part of one, (Heb 10:23-25), let us all strive to meet this scriptural standard laid down by the apostle Paul. Then when God looks at our local church, He will be pleased with our church heart, no matter how many people attend the services!

Sincerely submitted.


Wednesday, September 19, 2007


Another thing that I'm sure he hates is "cleanliness and order". Our God is a God of order, as can be easily seen when we consider the perfect universe that He created. If it were not for this perfect order, the space exploration program would be impossible, and we would never be able to predict future times for simple things like "tide tables"! There is an old saying that "cleanliness is next to Godliness", it may not be a quote from scripture, but is a true statement none the less! When you consider things like "disorder, confusion, and chaos", which often surround ungodly people who are part of Satan's kingdom of darkness, you can easily see that these things are completely opposite to cleanliness and order. This is one way of detecting things he hates, by simply considering some of the attributes of God. Since Satan is the avowed enemy of God, and because he has no power to come against God directly, he does all he can to prevent the extension of the Kingdom of God on planet earth. We often see this in things that are completely opposite to the attributes or character of God.

The Bible mentions "unclean spirits" in several places, such as (Mark 1:26-27, and 9:25). These unclean spirits were demons, or disembodied spirits, that are part of Satan's kingdom of darkness on planet earth. They are invisible earth bound creatures, which seem to like to inhabit the physical bodies of humans or animals.(Mark 5:1-13). In the OT we see many times the distinction between objects that are declared by God to be unclean, and those that are considered by Him to be clean. God's people were always warned to abstain from anything that was unclean. The same goes without saying for God's people in the NT, and for all of us living today who are followers of Jesus. There may be some questions concerning certain things today that are considered unclean, but the Holy Spirit who indwells us as believers can be depended on to show us what to avoid!

I'm sure we have all had the experience of driving through the country on some back road, and seeing the contrast between houses and dooryards that are neat and tidy with lawns and flowers etc. and yards that are completely the opposite, with junk and garbage everywhere! There is a good likelihood that unclean spirits are involved in such a situation. Let us who know and follow Jesus, let our light so shine wherever we are, that there will be no question which kingdom we are part of!

Sincerely submitted.


Monday, September 17, 2007


6/ Another thing that Satan hates with a passion is "humility"! This is a very interesting Greek word that was used by Paul in his exhortation to the elders of the church at Ephesus (Acts 20:19). According to Strong's #5012 it is composed of two words, one meaning "humble", and the other meaning "mind". And in English it can mean---modesty, lowliness, humble-mindedness, a sense of moral insignificance, and a humble attitude of unselfish concern for others. It is a total absence of arrogance, conceit, and haughtiness. Is it any wonder that Satan would hate it? It describes an action on the part of followers of Jesus, that is the exact opposite of everything he stands for!

We are seeing clearly, as we list these things that Satan hates, that there is no way we can prevent being in conflict with him, if we really choose to become a follower of Jesus! Take time right now to read carefully (James 4:6-10), and also (1 Peter 5:5-11) for clear instructions for dealing with Satan. Notice that in both of these passages the authors stress the importance of "humility", and in each case we are told to "humble yourself"! This is something that God will not do for us! He gives us lots of instructions in His Word for us to know how to humble ourselves, but it is up to us to carry them out.

In his second letter to Timothy, Paul gives some good advice that is applicable to all of us as followers of Jesus.In chapter two (2 Tim 2:15-23) he gives good advice on various things, and then in verse 24 we read "A servant of the Lord must not quarrel but be kind to everyone, be able to teach, and be patient with difficult people. Gently instruct those who oppose the truth. Perhaps God will change these people's hearts, and they will learn the truth. Then they will come to their senses and escape from the devil's trap. For they have been held captive by him to do whatever he wants." This passage describes the strategy of Satan quite well. He is holding people captive to do his will, and the only hope for them is that if we, as followers of Jesus, will "gently instruct" them in the ways of Satan. This requires that we "humble ourselves", and submit to the Holy Spirit who indwells us, to know how to gently lead people to Jesus. Then they will be able to "escape from the devil's trap"! This is the overall purpose of "humility" in our lives, as I see it.

Sincerely submitted.


Friday, September 14, 2007


5/ "Spiritual Unity" is another thing that Satan hates, and has done everything he can do to prevent true unity in the Body of Christ over the years. Even in the OT he was always active trying to get God's people to worship the idols and the many false Gods that the nations around them worshiped! Satan has never changed his tactics much since that time. The "True Church", which is the Body of Christ in the world today, is continually being tempted to worship the idols of the world system that they have been delivered from. The Greek name for church is "Ecclesia", which means "called out ones". In other words when we are born again into the family of God, we are called out from the ungodly world around us, and become part of the one True Church, that Jesus has been in the process of building for some 2000 years. Satan has always hated the true church, as we mentioned back in part 1, and has tried in various ways to form a counterfeit false church.

We have written several articles on unity, and there is a true unity of the Spirit of God, which is identified in scripture by the Greek word "koinonia". This word is used in (Acts 2:42) and is translated "fellowship". This true unity is only possible between people who have been born into the family of God, and thus became part of the true church. Satan has a counterfeit "Ecumenical Movement" which he has been promoting for years now among members of the "false church". This movement would like to see all Christian denominations join together with other world Religions, to form one big "World Wide Church". After all, they say, we all believe in one god, and all roads lead to heaven, why should we not be united? This type of "unity" will never achieve koinonia, or God's type of unity in the Spirit, simply because it is prompted by Satan. People who have never been born of the Spirit can be easily convinced that surely this is a good thing. Scripture teaches that we can not be part of two separate kingdoms, Satan's kingdom of darkness, and God's Kingdom of Light! (Col 1:11-14). So let's be clear that we will have nothing to do with this false church, or this false system of "unity" that Satan is trying to set up as a counterfeit for God's true unity of the Holy Spirit! Remember, Satan hates God, he hates God's people, and he hates true "koinonia", or unity of the Spirit!

Sincerely submitted


Wednesday, September 12, 2007


In part 1 we mentioned three things that clearly he hates with a passion, namely individual believers in Jesus, human families, and the True Church.

4/ Another big one that Satan has tried his best to pollute and destroy is "Modesty, and Sexual Purity". Especially in the last 50-60 years, some of us senior citizens who have been around for several generations can easily see the effects of his work. The scriptures are very clear that believers should hold a high standard in both of these areas. When ever we see people's behavior going directly opposite to that outlined in Scripture, we can safely assume that their actions are being prompted by Satan!

Take the matter of "modesty" for example, in (1 Cor 12:23), where Paul compares the human body to the Body of Christ, he says "and the parts we regard as less honorable are those we clothe with the greatest care. So we carefully protect those parts that should not be seen". That comes across to me as a very clear commandment on how we should dress in public. Yet we often see Christian women in public that apparently have never read these words of instruction from holy scripture. We have seen several cases lately where women were exposing parts of their anatomy that should only be seen by their husband in the privacy of their own bedroom. The world of fashion and entertainment are no doubt to blame for the drastic decline in this area of modesty, but followers of Jesus have no business following these worldly patterns! It would seem to me that good old "common sense" should dictate the way ladies dress in public, but I realize that common sense, as I use the term, is in short supply these days! It is very grieving when you see how some mothers allow their pre-teen daughters to dress like "street walkers", applying their trade on some uptown street!

Satan didn't invent human sexuality, God did, for a very good reason, and with clear instructions as to how and where it is to used. Satan can never create anything, he only attempts to pollute or counterfeit something that God created for good. This is very evident in this whole matter of human sexuality. Scripture is clear that sexual intimacy was meant to be practiced only between a husband and wife, as part of the "marriage covenant" they entered into before God, in the presence of family and friends. Any sexual activity outside this covenant was strictly forbidden by God, with death to the offenders in the OT law. God's principles never change, but thank God His grace is sufficient to cover our offences under the New Covenant, when we repent and ask for forgiveness!! If we can understand that any temptation to break these conditions laid down in God's Word regarding modesty and sexual purity is being put forth by Satan, we need to apply the truth given in (James 4:6-10), and also in (1 Peter 5:6-11). Do this and you can live a life pleasing to your heavenly Father!

Sincerely submitted.


Monday, September 10, 2007


There are a some things I believe Satan actually hates, so we will attempt to identify a few.

1/ If you are a "born again" member of God's family, you are #1 on his hate list. He doesn't mind people who only claim to be a "Christian", but continue doing the things that sinners do. These people are still part of his kingdom of darkness, and actually he delights in them calling themselves Christians, because their lifestyle brings reproach on the Body of Christ. Satan hates God with a passion since he got put out of heaven for his rebellion millions of years ago! He was created as one of the "Big Three" Archangels, his name before his fall was Lucifer, and along with Michael and Gabriel they had rule over the entire heavenly host of angels. Because God will only permit one perfect will in heaven, He had no choice but to banish Lucifer from heaven after he tried to exert his will against God's. (Isa 14:12-17) and (Ezek 28:12-19). He apparently chose earth as his temporary abode, and soon after God started to populate earth with human beings he continued his war against God by successfully tempting the first humans to rebel against their Creator and disobey the only restriction He had put on them. (Gen 2:15-17, 3:1-7). Because he can't do anything directly toward God, he takes out his wrath on God's children!

2/ It seems that "families" are high on his list of things to hate and try to destroy. When we consider the divorce rate, and the number of single parent families in our society, we can easily see Satan's hand in this problem. Families consisting of a godly husband, a submissive wife and mother, and obedient children has always been God's ideal. (Eph 5:21-33, 6:1-4) Satan has done every thing in his power to destroy them completely from the face of the earth.

3/ The "True Church" that Jesus has been in the process of building for some 2000 years has certainly been an object of Satan's hatred. In the beginning he used the religious Jews to persecute the church, also much persecution came from the Roman Emperors. Then under Constantine he changed his tactics and encouraged the church to become part of the Roman Empire, and include many heathen practices in their worship and church structure. Constantine began the custom of building large cathedral type buildings, patterned after heathen temples. Prior to this time believers met in homes regularly for fellowship, prayer and teaching. They held larger meetings in the Jewish synagogues, or the public rooms attached to the Temple in Jerusalem. (Acts 2:42-47) Their church structure apparently consisted of Elders and Deacons to govern the local churches, under the supervision of Apostles like Paul, Barnabas, Timothy, and other traveling ministers. The elaborate structure of Bishops, Archbishops, Cardinals etc. to govern this "false church", was never part of God's plan for His "True Church". We can see the hand of Satan through the years attempting to prevent the true Church from functioning as an agent of God's Kingdom on earth!

Sincerely submitted.


Friday, September 7, 2007


A recent study of Romans 8, plus some other teaching on what it means to be a son of God, has caused me to rethink this whole matter. The church has been very cautious about this area because of a certain error that came out of a move of God back in 1948. This move took place in North Battleford Sask, and attracted attention from Christians from several nations. The truths that were restored to the church at that time had a lasting positive effect on certain segments of the church, while at the same time were ignored, or seen as heresy by others. It is commonly referred to as “The Latter Rain” movement, although the original people involved refused to use that name, and simply called it “The Move of God”.

The controversial teaching that came out of this move had to do with the revelation of the sons of God from Romans 8. It became known as “The Manifest Sons” teaching, and some of these men went so far as teaching that it was possible to reach the level of perfection that would allow them to overcome even the last enemy which is death. In other words they believed they could overcome death in these mortal bodies. In the 60’s several of these men died in a plane crash, thus disproving their theory. But the controversy over the place of the “sons of God”, and “the over comers” in the body of Christ still rages in certain circles. It is clear from reading the first few chapters of Revelation and Romans 8 that not all believers are “over comers”. And then we have the teaching of Jesus about the 30, 60 and 100 fold believers. How to handle all this without becoming classed as a Select of the elect” believer, is a major problem, as I see it!

This controversy shouldn’t keep us back from looking into the subject of what it means to be a “Son of God”. We are “adopted” into the family of God at conversion, and thus become children of God, “and if children then heirs—heirs of God and joint heirs with Christ” (Rom 8:17). Read (Eph 1:3-14) and meditate on this truth of what all it means to be “in Christ”. This might give us a better understanding, and appreciation for the fact that we are privileged to be considered by our Creator to be accepted as His children. This fact has eternal benefits for us, and we should never be guilty of taking it for granted. It is a gift from our Creator, and is entirely by “grace”, and not possible to be earned by “good works” of any sort or amount! (Eph 2:8-10). This is truly “good news” that we should be spreading to all we can in these “perilous times” that we have been called to live in!

Sincerely submitted.


Thursday, September 6, 2007

OPPOSITES (part 2)

In part 1 we looked at the subjects of hot vs cold, and light vs darkness. In this part we will consider "right vs wrong".This is a very broad subject, and nearly impossible to cover properly in a short article. The scriptures may not always use these terms, but the word "righteous", or "righteousness" is often used to describe persons or actions that are right in the sight of God; whereas the word "sin" or "unrighteous" generally covers the description of persons or actions that are wrong in His sight!

Scriptures like (Ps 1:5-6, 34:15-22, 37:10-17) are examples of the difference in the way God separates between the "righteous" and the "wicked", and their positions before God are very clear! Today in our 21st century society, this difference is not so easily seen because sin or wickedness has been given new names. These new terms might make people feel better about their life style, but sin is still wrong in God's sight, and only those people whose sin is covered by the "Blood of Jesus" are considered right in His sight! Ever since Adam and Eve sinned in the Garden of Eden, by disobeying God's command, He set in motion a system of sacrifices to pay the price of sin. These sacrifices always involved the shedding of the blood of some innocent animal, which could only cover sin for a time, but not do away with it. However (Heb 10:1-10), (2 Cor 5:17), (Eph 2:1-10), and many other scriptures, clearly lay out God's plan to transform a "wicked sinner" into a "righteous saint"!

Because the church has not maintained a clear declaration of the truth of God's Word regarding sin, and it's consequences, people are perishing because of ignorance! Satan, the enemy of mankind, has been quite successful in blinding the eyes of these people. (2 Cor 4:3-7). That's why it is so important that the "True Church" comes forth in our day and starts to declare the "Gospel of the Kingdom of God" to a lost and dying generation! That's where every "born again" member of God's family has a vital part to play in these end times in which we are living. Satan has spread his lies in the church, by way of many false doctrines, that have served to "water down" the true gospel of the Kingdom. What has been preached in many circles is a gospel of convenience and prosperity, that people want to hear, but will never deliver them from their bondages! Only the true gospel that Paul preached has the power to do that. (Rom 1:16-17) Let us boldly declare the difference in our day between right and wrong according to the Holy Scriptures, and live by it's "absolutes"!

Sincerely submitted.


Tuesday, September 4, 2007

OPPOSITES (part 1)

It seems that in our world we are faced with a system of opposites, which literally means things that are diametrically opposed to each other. For example hot and cold, high and low, near and far etc. Because of this difference between one extreme to the other, we tend to develop an "in between" philosophy that we think is the best way to understand things. I have often heard that we should be well "balanced", or in other words hold a view somewhere near the mid point between the two extremes. Another way I have heard it expressed is a "middle of the road " philosophy, and I must admit this is the stand I have favored on a lot of controversial issues in the past. You know, "don't rock the boat", try to please everyone, you don't want anyone to not like you, etc. This may sound like a good philosophy, but is it scriptural? After all, if we profess to be followers of Jesus, we better be prepared to follow His commands! Right?

The first command of Jesus that comes to mind is the one recorded in (Rev 3:15-16), which is part of His message to the church in Laodicea "I know all the things you do, that you are neither hot nor cold. I wish that you were one or the other! But since you are like lukewarm water, neither hot nor cold, I will spit you out of my mouth!" This definitely doesn't fit a middle of the road philosophy! Just imagine , Jesus would sooner see us cold than lukewarm, of course I believe it goes without saying that His first choice would be that we were hot! Paul, in his letter to the believers in Rome, addressed this issue . We read in (Rom 12:11) from the Amp version "Never lag in zeal and in earnest endeavor; be aglow and burning with the Spirit, serving the Lord". I assume from this that he was saying the same thing as Jesus was wishing for the believers in Laodicea. You might argue that this was only a "wish" of Jesus, and not a command, but I think His point was clear!

Another subject that scripture has a lot to say about is the contrast between "darkness and light", for example (John 1:4-5), and (1 John 1:5-7). Jesus came to earth to be the light of the world, and all who have accepted Him as their personal Savior are carriers of His light. He said we are to be "salt and light" to this world that is lost in darkness and moral corruption. There is no place for a compromise stand half way between light and darkness! Jesus definitely made it clear that we can't serve two masters, or live in two kingdoms at the same time, (Matt 6:19-34). So let us who are followers of Jesus live our lives in such a way that will please both Him and the Father! He has given us the Holy Spirit to indwell us for that very purpose! (Acts 1:8)

Sincerely submitted.